Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in A Tertiary Paediatric Hospital in Malaysia
Keywords:Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD), Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Children, Unusual
Introduction and Objective: Pneumococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There were limited publications on invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to describe restrospectively cases of IPD in hospitalised children of less than 12 years old and highlighting the unusual cases. Methodology: A retrospective review of children with IPD from March 2002 to November 2005 at a tertiary paediatric hospital. IPD cases were defined as isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from a normally sterile body fluid site. Results: Twenty-four patients were identified with a male preponderance. Two-thirds of patients were below 1-year-old; with three cases presenting in the premature newborn. Thirty-seven percent of cases had underlying conditions. Sepsis and pneumonia were the commonest manifestation, followed by meningitis. The unusual manifestations were in a form of post- infectious glomerulonephritis and overwhelming purpura fulminans. There were two mortalities; both infants had meningitis. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern showed that more than half of the isolates were sensitive towards penicillin and erythromycin. Penicillin resistance was found in 6 (25%) isolates. Conclusion: IPD results in significant morbidity and mortality, especially in young children below 2 years of age and justifies further evaluation of preventive strategies including the implementation of pneumococcal vaccine in the national immunisation programme.
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